** (Used Definitions and Acceptances) **

The terms used correspond to the subject of the book and refer to space, time, gravity, and the electromagnetic field. Some of the definitions match the commonly accepted definitions in basic sources of modern physics. Others are formulated by the author as working concepts for the purposes of this monograph, but some of them do not correspond to those officially accepted by modern physics.

**1) The Universe**

Based on awareness of the physical reality, the following general definition of the Universe can be given:

* The Universe is the entire time-spatial existence, with all the matter and energy, with all the time-spatial distortion by the fundamental forces of nature, and where the energy accumulates and transforms.*

**2) Space-time, gravitational and electromagnetic fields**

* Time and space* are mutually connected and postulated by Albert Einstein as an interwoven continuum known as space-time. Space-time itself is often referred to as an “empty space” or “vacuum” (space devoid of matter), that actually exists on many levels. It’s among the elementary particles of matter, among all the planets, stars, and galaxies. All of these levels are interconnected, interdependent, and change in perfect synchrony, the laws of which have yet to be discovered.

** The gravitational field** is а force field that exists in the space around every matter. This field is characterized by the gravitational force, which is stronger if the mass is bigger, and decreases as the distance from the mass increases

*(Newton’s law of universal gravitation)*.

** The electromagnetic field** can be viewed as a property of space, as a mutual existence (combination) of the electric field and the magnetic field on (and in) the space.

The space in the Universe is actually the medium of the existence of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, the gravitational and electromagnetic forces warp space-time at the macro- and micro-levels. The characteristics of the electromagnetic field are changing together with the change in the gravitational field intensity. The different intensity of the gravitational field means different contraction/expansion of space, which means different characteristics of electromagnetic radiation. *Therefore, we can say that the wavelength and the frequency of electromagnetic radiation are respectively its **spatial – and time– characteristics.*

**3) Gravitational potential and intensity of the gravitational field**

** The gravitational potential** at a point in a gravitational field (in relation to a body with a mass M) is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass (located at the point), that would be done by the force of gravity, if the object was moved from its location to a “zero” reference location (infinitely far away from the mass M). Therefore, at any finite distance, the gravitational potential is negative, because the energy spent by the force moving the body is against the gravitational force.

** The intensity of the gravitational field **(caused by a mass M) at a point in the field is the gravitational force of attraction per unit mass located at this point. The vector of this force is directed to the center of the mass M, and its magnitude is directly proportional to the mass M and inversely proportional to the square of the distance to it.

The accepted meaning of a time-spatial domain in this book is: **“The time-spatial domain”** is a small region in the Universe with the same (uniform) intensity of the gravitational field, which depends on its proximity to massive objects.

** 5) Local time-spatial domain “Local Physical Reality”.**

*The “Local physical reality” is any time-spatial domain with practically the same (uniform) intensity of the gravitational field, which remains constant in the general motion of the celestial bodies in the Universe, and where the base units of time and of space (length) can be considered to be constant. Our local physical reality can be named “near the Earth’s surface”.*

**6) “Global Physical Reality” in the Universe.**

*The Global physical reality of space-time in the Universe is actually the infinite set of local time-spatial domains among the celestial bodies (and on the surfaces of the celestial bodies). Generally, the different local time-spatial domains are with different intensities of the gravitational field.*

**7) GURLW (Global Universal Relative Level of Warping) of a time-spatial domain in the Universe**.

The force of gravity in a time-spatial
region in the Universe determines the level of contraction and deformation of
time and space in it. The intensity of the gravitational field in a certain
small time-spatial domain is the gravitational force applied on a unit of mass
in this domain by the surrounding massive objects. It is impossible to define
“an absolute” gravitational intensity in a time-spatial domain in relation to
all the mass in the Universe. Actually, it can be compared (only approximately)
the intensities of gravitational fields in different regions in the Universe,
but only by using the measurement units defined in our time-spatial domain *“near
the Earth’s surface”*. Generally, the measurement units are different in the
different time-spatial domains. Definition of GURLW:

*The different local regions in the Universe can be characterized by their GURLW (Global Universal Relative Level of Warping), which is actually a “relative local space-time level of expansion/contraction”.*

**8) Vacuum density**.

Depending on the strength of the gravitational field, the space contracts near the material objects. In this sense, the concept of *“vacuum density”* or *“density of space”* may be introduced, and this density depends on the intensity of the gravitational field (by the gravity). This concept is consistent with the concept of *“electromagnetic energy per unit volume”* (see “u” in formula (26)). The frequency, wavelength, and speed of electromagnetic radiation (speed of light) * in vacuum* depend on the intensity of the gravitational field, depend on the

*“vacuum density”*. The change in frequency of electromagnetic radiation, depending on the force of gravity in the regions through which light passes, actually means a change of the energy of photons. This means that when the electromagnetic radiation spreads, the space accumulates part of the energy of the quanta, when they enter to a region of higher intensity of the gravitational field (the frequency decreases), and accordingly gives energy back to the quanta when they enter to a region of weaker gravity (the frequency increases). Therefore, for the

*“vacuum density”,*we can judge from formula (26) for the electromagnetic energy in unit volume

*(“u”)*.

**9) Vectors, scalars. Vector addition. **

**Vector projection and scalar projection.**

**Vector** (Euclidean vector), in physics, is a quantity that has both magnitude (length) and direction. It is represented as an arrow, whose length is proportional to the quantity’s magnitude. However, the vector has no position. It means that the vector is not altered if it is displaced parallel to itself.

The so-called parallelogram law gives the rule for the ** vector addition** of two or more vectors. In Cartesian coordinates for two vectors A and B, the vector addition can be performed simply by adding the respective components of the vectors, so if A = (a

_{1}, a

_{2}, a

_{3}) and В = (b

_{1}, b

_{2}, b

_{3}), then: (A+B) = (a

_{1}+b

_{1}, a

_{2}+b

_{2}, a

_{3}+b

_{3}).

**Scalar** is a quantity that has a magnitude but not a direction.

For example, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, while speed (the magnitude of the velocity vector), time, temperature, length, and mass are scalars.

**Vector projection of a vector** on a coordinate axis (with direction) or on another non-zero vector, is a vector that is the orthogonal projection of the vector on a straight line parallel to the axis (or to the other vector) The direction of the vector projection is the direction of the coordinate axis.

**Scalar projection** of a vector on a coordinate axis (with a direction), or on another vector, is a scalar, equal to the length of the orthogonal projection of the vector on the axis, and is with a negative sign if the projection has an opposite direction with respect to the direction of the axis (or of the vector). In Cartesian coordinates, the components of the vector are the scalar projections on the coordinate axes.

Thus, the scalar projection of the vector on (over) another vector can be written as

, where θ is the angle between the two vectors. In other words, some of the scalars in physics have a “plus” or a “minus” sign, while the vector can have countless directions.

**Note:** In order to be more precise, in the book the term “velocity” is used, when we mean the vector with its direction; and we will use the term “speed” when we mean only the scalar magnitude of the vector, as the “speed of light in vacuum”.

**10) The used frames of reference**.

** Reference system (frame of reference)** is a concept in physics (usually associated with the movement) to denote the point of view of the observer. In turn,

*inertial reference frames*(Galilean reference frames) are those that move rectilinearly at a constant velocity.

**The presented logical analysis in our local physical reality “near the Earth’s surface” is based mainly on the following frames of reference:**

*1. Humankind usually uses the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface. In this frame of reference, the Earth’s surface is stationary. For an observer positioned at a point on the Earth’s surface – each body fixed to the ground is stationary.*

*2. The “stationary in the space” coordinate system – the “Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system”. As mentioned, a fully stationary coordinate system cannot exist in the reality. The “Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system” can be considered stationary in relation to the surrounding the Earth space in specific cases of experiments carried out on the Earth’s surface. The origin of the coordinate system is in the center of the Earth (which is not stationary), and its axes are practically stationary – aimed at very distant astronomical objects.*

In other words, we can say that the “ECI coordinate system” is related to the stationary space itself, where the Earth rotates around its axis, where the photons are born and propagate. If an observer is positioned at a point in this coordinate system, they will be stationary in relation to the stationary space and will see that each point of the Earth’s surface moves eastward in the stationary space with a certain *linear velocity*. *The linear velocity** of movement of a point on the Earth’s surface in the stationary space depends on the latitude of the location of the point. It is equal approximately to 0.465 km/s at the equatorial line and is equal to zero at the points of intersection of the Earth’s axis of rotation with the ground surface, which points of intersection are the North and South poles.*

Another considered stationary in relation to the surrounding space frame of reference, for certain cases, is the *“Heliocentric inertial (HCI) coordinate system”*, which has its origin at the center of the Sun (which is also not stationary), and the axes of “HCI” are aimed at very distant astronomical objects. An observer positioned stationary in the “HCI” reference system, will see how the planets orbit the Sun (how the Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun with approximately 30 km/s); how the plasma of the Sun moves /rotates (the rotation of the plasma at the equator of the Sun is with a period of about 24.5 days, and almost 38 days near the poles).

* Note*:

*Here, as a generalized designation of “stationary in relation to the space coordinate system” the designation “frame of reference related to the space itself” is used. This name often replaces the used in the book the “ECI coordinate system” and the “HCI coordinate system”. It can be considered as “frames of reference related to the space itself” – the axes are practically stationary in relation to the space, but the systems have different origins of the coordinate systems, which are not stationary.*

**In this sense, it is good to recall the following important things:**

**First:** The gravitational force of the Earth is exerted on everything nearby, which has a mass. Not only all the material bodies on the Earth’s surface are gripped by the Earth’s gravitation and therefore are stationary in relation to the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface. The material bodies in the atmosphere, as well as the molecules of the atmosphere (everything with a mass), are also trapped by the Earth’s gravitation. That is why, they participate in the Earth’s rotation around its axis, but in addition, the atmosphere molecules participate in the atmospheric phenomena. In other words, we can say that all material bodies in the atmosphere (with the molecules of the atmosphere, the flying airplanes, etc…) are involved in the Earth’s rotation around its axis.

**Second:** The warped space by the celestial bodies is not “matter”. Therefore, the space does not participate in the rotation around the Earth’s axis, along with the surface and with the material bodies in the atmosphere. The warped space by the mass of the Earth is stationary in the “Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system”.

**11) Linear velocity of a point on the ground surface**.

Each point on the Earth’s surface moves in the stationary space with a specified *linear velocity**(the speed of motion of a point on the Earth’s surface in the stationary space for the respective latitude).* Every point of the Earth’s surface always moves in the East direction. The magnitude of the speed (i.e. the scalar value of the velocity vector), depends on the latitude. It is equal approximately to 0.465 km/s for any point on the equator, and is equal to zero at the points of intersection of the Earth’s axis of rotation with the ground surface (the North and South poles).

**12) Electromagnetic radiation, the electromagnetic spectrum, **

**and the light**.

**Electromagnetic radiation** (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy emitted at certain electromagnetic processes.

**The electromagnetic spectrum** is the range of all types, of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

**Light **is the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye.

**13) Galilean Principle of relativity.**

It was formulated by Galileo Galilei
in 1632*. *

**The Galilean Principle of Relativity is the principle of the physical equality of inertial systems in classical mechanics**. According to this principle, the laws of motion (Newton’s laws of motion), are the same in all inertial frames of reference.

Galileo Galilei used the example of a ship traveling at a constant velocity, without rocking, on a smooth sea. Any observer doing experiments below the deck would not be able to tell whether the ship is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, or is stationary. In this way, Galileo Galilei described the principle of relativity in 1632. From the conclusion that the laws of motion (Newton’s laws of motion) are the same in all inertial frames of reference, it follows that:

*It is impossible to determine by any mechanical experiment, conducted in any inertial system, whether the given inertial system is at rest or moving uniformly and rectilinearly in the stationary space.*

*This means that there is no dependence of the velocity of a body with mass m on the direction of motion of the body in the inertial system ( i.e. there is no anisotropy)!*

**14) Experiments on the Earth’s surface. **

**Mechanical experiments. Optical experiments**

In our local physical reality *“in the vicinity of the Earth’s surface”:*

*Every mechanical or optical experiment actually occurs in the common stationary space of the two aforementioned frames of reference – the “Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system” and the “frame of reference, related to the Earth’s surface”.*

In **mechanical experiments**, the material bodies in the atmosphere (including the molecules of the gases), are involved in the Earth’s rotation around its axis by the Earth’s gravity.

In **optical experiments**, the photons are not involved in the Earth’s rotation around its axis, because they have no mass!

**Space **is the medium of the existence of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. However, the gravitational and electromagnetic forces contract and warp the space itself. In this sense, the electromagnetic radiations are actually vibrations of the space itself. That is why the speed of electromagnetic radiation (of light) *in a vacuum* (in the reference system related to the stationary space) is constant in a region of a uniform intensity of the gravitational field. That is why the anisotropy of the speed of light is established (depending on the direction of the light beam) in the inertial frame of reference *“near the surface of the Earth”*.

**About the postulates in the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”**

In the article *“On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies*”, the formulation of the first postulate, which Einstein names “the principle of relativity”, refers to the natural laws – that the laws of electrodynamics and optics are valid in all inertial reference systems, where the laws of mechanics are valid:

*“the same laws of electrodynamics and optics will be valid for all frames of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good.”*

The second postulate, for which Einstein states that “*is only apparently irreconcilable with the former”*, is formulated as follows:

*“light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c, which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body.”*

It’s obvious that “the same laws of electrodynamics and optics are valid for all frames of reference”. On the following statements, however: *“light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c, which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body”*, along with *“for all frames of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good”* – they need the following differentiation to be done:

1) In a moving inertial frame of reference in the “empty space”, it is impossible by mechanical experiments to prove that this inertial frame of reference is moving or is at rest, in relation to the stationary space.

2) But, by measuring the speed of light in the moving frame of reference, the task “**to determine the speed of the inertial reference system in the “empty space”** is elementary (see section 21.1 of the monograph). It should be added that we are talking about the local surrounding stationary “empty space” in a region with the same (uniform) intensity of the gravitational field – as our region “near the surface of the Earth”. This task has been demonstrated by the “Michelson-Gale-Pearson Experiment”, but can also be demonstrated by experiments at different latitudes where the linear velocity of the Earth’s surface is different!. All the analyzed experiments will once again prove that ** “the speed of light is not the same for all inertial frames of reference”**.

**15) The velocity of electromagnetic radiation (the speed of light)**

**The two major frames of reference**, where we consider the velocity of electromagnetic radiation, are “the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface” and “the *Earth-centered inertial (ECI) frame of reference*”.

For contemporary physics, there is no difference between *“the speed of light in the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface”* and *“the speed of light in the Earth-centered inertial (ECI) frame of reference”*. **This is because modern physics has incorrectly accepted that the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames of reference**. However:

• on the one hand, in our local time-spatial domain “near the Earth’s surface”, with a constant intensity of the gravitational field, the measured speed of light has different values in the different inertial frames of reference or in different directions in the same frame of reference – and **it is the first proven key-conclusion in this monograph.**

• on the other hand, the global physical reality in the Universe shows that the *“speed of light in vacuum”* (in the frame of reference related to the stationary space),

**,**

*is a local constant for the entire electromagnetic spectrum**but this constant is different for regions with different intensity of the gravitational field*– and

**this is another proven key-conclusion in this monograph**.

“The ** “speed of light in empty space” **is the correlation between the frequency and the wavelength for the whole electromagnetic spectrum, which is

**a local constant**for our and for any other local time-spatial domain.” (Sharlanov, 2016).

The terms used correspond to the subject of the book and refer to space, time, gravity, and the electromagnetic field. Some of the definitions match the commonly accepted definitions in basic sources of modern physics. Others are formulated by the author as working concepts for the purposes of this monograph, but some of them do not correspond to those officially accepted by modern physics.

**1) ****The Universe**

Based on awareness of the physical reality, the following general definition of the Universe can be given:

The Universe is the entire time-spatial existence, with all the matter and energy, with all the time-spatial distortion by the fundamental forces of nature, and where the energy accumulates and transforms.

**2) ****Space-time, gravitational and electromagnetic fields**

** The time and space **are mutually connected and posited by Albert Einstein as a single
interwoven continuum, known as space-time. Space-time itself is often called “vacuum”
or “empty space” and it actually exists on many levels. It lays among the
elementary particles of matter, among all planets, stars, and galaxies. All
these levels are mutually interconnected, depend on each other, and change in
perfect synchrony, whose laws have not yet been discovered.

** The gravitational field** is а force field that exists in the space around every mass. This
field is characterized by the gravitational force, which is stronger if the
mass is bigger, and decreases as the distance from the mass increases

*(Newton’s law of universal gravitation)*.

** The electromagnetic field** is a combination of the electric and magnetic force fields, which also exist on (and in) the space.

The space in the Universe is actually the medium of the existence of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, the gravitational and electromagnetic forces warp the space-time at the macro- and micro- levels. The characteristics of the electromagnetic field are changing with the change of the gravitational field intensity. The different intensity of the gravitational field means different contraction/expansion of space, which means different characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, we can say that the wavelength and the frequency of electromagnetic radiation are respectively its spatial- and time- characteristics.

**3) Gravitational potential and intensity of the gravitational field**

** The gravitational potential** at a point in a gravitational field (in relation to a body with a
mass M) is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass (located at the
point), that would be done by the force of gravity, if the object was moved
from its location to a “zero” reference location (infinitely far away from the
mass M). Therefore, at any finite distance, the gravitational potential is
negative, because the energy exerted by the gravitational force is against the
force moving the body.

** The intensity of the gravitational field** (caused by a mass M) at a point in the field is the force per unit
mass located at this point. The vector of this force is directed to the center
of the mass M, and its magnitude is directly proportional to the mass M and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance to it.

The accepted meaning of a time-spatial domain in this book is:

*“Time-spatial domain” is a small region of the Universe with a uniform (the same) intensity of the gravitational, which depends on its proximity to massive objects.*

**5) Time-spatial domain “Local Physical Reality”**

*“Local physical reality” is any time-spatial domain with an approximately uniform (the same) intensity of the gravitational fiel, where the base units of time and of space (length) can be considered the same. Our local physical reality can be named “near the Earth’s surface”.*

**6) The “Global Physical Reality” in the Universe**

*The Global physical reality of the space-time in the Universe is actually the infinite set of local time-spatial domains among the celestial bodies (and on the surfaces of the celestial bodies). Generally, the different local time-spatial domains are with different intensities of the gravitational field.*

**7) GURLW (Global Universal Relative Level of Warping) of a time-spatial domain in the Universe**

The force of gravity in a time-spatial area in the universe determines the level of contraction and deformation of time and space in it. The intensity of the gravitational field in a certain small time-spatial domain is the force applied on a unit of mass in this domain by the gravitational field of the domain’s surrounding masses. It is impossible to define “an absolute” gravitational intensity in a time-spatial domain in relation to all the mass in the Universe. Actually, it can be compared (only approximately) the intensities of gravitational fields in different areas in the Universe, but only by using the measurement units defined in our time-spatial domain “near the Earth’s surface”. Generally, the measurement units are different in the different time-spatial domains. Definition of GURLW:

*The different local areas in the Universe can be characterized by their GURLW (Global Universal Relative Level of Warping), which is actually a “relative local space-time level of expansion/contraction”.*

Depending on the strength of the gravitational field near the material objects, the space is contracting. In this sense, the concept of ** “vacuum density”** or

**may be introduced and this density depends on the intensity of the gravitational field. This concept is consistent with the concept of**

*“density of space”**“electromagnetic energy per unit volume”*(see

**“u”**in formula (26)). The frequency, wavelength, and speed of electromagnetic radiation (of light) depend on the intensity of the gravitational field, on the

**. The change in frequency of electromagnetic radiation, depending on the force of gravity in the areas through which light passes, actually means a change of the energy of photons. This means that when the electromagnetic radiation spreads, the space accumulates part of the energy of the quanta, when they enter to an area of higher intensity of the gravitational field, and accordingly gives energy back to the quanta when they enter to a region of weaker gravity. Therefore, for the**

*“vacuum density”**“vacuum density”,*we can judge from formula (26) for the electromagnetic energy in unit volume

*(“u”)*.

**9) Vectors, scalars. Vector projection and scalar projection**

*Vector** (Euclidean vector), in physics, is a quantity that has both magnitude (length) and direction. It is represented as an arrow, whose length is proportional to the quantity’s magnitude. However, the vector has no position. It means that the vector is not altered if it is displaced parallel to itself. *

The so-called parallelogram law gives the rule for ** vector addition** of two or more vectors. In Cartesian coordinates for two vectors A and B, the vector addition can be performed simply by adding the corresponding components of the vectors, so if A = (a

_{1}, a

_{2}, a

_{3}) and В = (b

_{1}, b

_{2}, b

_{3}), then: (A+B) = ( a

_{1}+b

_{1}, a

_{2}+b

_{2}, a

_{3}+ b

_{3}).

*“**Scalar** is a quantity that has a magnitude but not a direction.”*

For example, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, while speed (the magnitude of the velocity vector), time, temperature, length, and mass are scalars.

*Vector projection of a vector** on a coordinate axis (with direction) or on another non-zero vector, is a vector which is the orthogonal projection of the vector on a straight line parallel to the axis (or to the other vector).*

*Scalar projection** of a vector on a coordinate axis (with a direction), or on another vector, is a **scalar**, equal to the length of the orthogonal projection of the vector on the axis, and with a negative sign if the projection has an opposite direction with respect to the axis (or vector) direction. In Cartesian coordinates, the components of the vector are the scalar projections on the coordinate axes.*

Thus, the scalar projection of the vector on (over) another vector can be written as

, where θ is the angle between the two vectors. In other words, some of the scalars in physics have a “plus” or a “minus” sign, while the vector can have countless directions.

**Note:** In order to be more precise, in the book the
term “velocity” is used, when we mean the vector
with
its direction; and we will use the term “speed” when we mean only the scalar magnitude
of the vector, as the “speed of
light in vacuum”.

**10) The used frames of reference**

** Reference system (frame of reference)** is a concept in physics (usually associated with the movement) to
denote the point of view of the observer. In turn,

*inertial reference frames*(Galilean reference frames) are those that move rectilinearly at a constant velocity.

The presented logical analysis in our local physical reality *“near the Earth’s surface”* is based mainly on two frames of reference:

1.The humankind usually uses **the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface**. In this frame of reference, the Earth’s surface is stationary. For an observer positioned at a point on the Earth’s surface – each body fixed to the ground is stationary.

2. The “stationary in the space” coordinate system – the **“Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system”**. As mentioned, a fully stationary coordinate system cannot exist in the reality. The “Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system” can be considered as stationary in relation to the surrounding space in specific cases of experiments carried out on the Earth’s surface. **The origin** of the coordinate system is in the center of the Earth (which is not stationary), and **its axes** are practically stationary – aimed at very distant astronomical objects.

In other words, we
can say that the “ECI coordinate system” is related to the stationary space itself, where the Earth
rotates, where photons are born and propagate. If an observer is positioned at
a point in this coordinate system, they will be stationary in relation to the
space and will see that each point of the Earth’s surface moves in the
stationary space with a certain *linear velocity*.
*The
linear velocity** of movement of a
point of the Earth’s surface in the stationary space depends on the latitude of
the location of the point. It is equal approximately to 0.465 km/s at the
equatorial line and is equal to zero in the points of intersection of the
Earth’s axis of rotation with the ground surface, which points of intersection
are the North and South poles.*

Another approximately stationary in relation to the surrounding space frame of reference is the *“Heliocentric inertial (HCI) coordinate system”*, which has its origin at the center of the Sun (which is also not stationary), and its axes are aimed at very distant astronomical objects. An observer positioned stationary in the *“HCI” reference system*, will see how the planets orbit the Sun (how the Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun with approximately 30 km/s); how the plasma of the Sun rotates (the rotation of the plasma at the equator of the Sun is with a period of about 24.5 days, and almost 38 days near the poles).

**Note**: In this book, as a generalized designation of “stationary in relation to the space coordinate system” the designation **“frame of reference related to the space itself”** is used. This name often replaces the used in the book the “ECI coordinate system” and the “HCI coordinate system”. can be considered as “frames of reference related to the space itself” – the axes are practically stationary in relation to the space, but the systems have different origins of the coordinate systems, which are not stationary.

In this sense, it is good to remember:

**First:** The gravitational force of the Earth is exerted on everything
nearby, which has a mass. Not only all the material bodies on the Earth’s
surface are gripped by the Earth’s gravitation and therefore are stationary in
relation to the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface. The material
bodies in the atmosphere, as well as the molecules of the atmosphere
(everything with a mass), are also trapped by the Earth’s gravitation. That is
why, they participate in the Earth’s rotation, but in addition, the atmosphere
molecules participate in the atmospheric phenomena. In other words, we can say
that all material bodies in the atmosphere (with the molecules of the
atmosphere, the flying airplanes, etc…) are involved in the Earth’s rotation.

**Second:** The warped space by the celestial bodies is not “matter”.
Therefore, the space does not participate in the rotation along with the
surface and with the material bodies in the atmosphere. *The warped space by the mass of the Earth is stationary in the “Earth-centered inertial (ECI)
coordinate system”.*

**11) Linear velocity of a point on the ground surface**

Each point of the Earth’s surface moves in
the stationary space with a specified *linear velocity**(the speed of motion of a point on the Earth’s surface in the
stationary space for the corresponding latitude).* Every point of the
Earth’s surface always moves in east direction. The magnitude of the speed
(i.e. the scalar
value of the velocity vector), is a magnitude depending on the latitude and
indicating the value of the spatial moving of the point over time. It is equal
approximately to 0.465 km/s for any point on the equatorial, and is equal to
zero in the points of intersection of the Earth’s axis of rotation with the
ground surface (the North and South poles).

**12) The electromagnetic radiation, the electromagnetic spectrum and the light**

**The electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR**) is the radiant energy emitted at certain electromagnetic processes.

**The electromagnetic spectrum **is the range of all types, of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

**The light **is the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye.

**13) Experiments on the Earth’s surface. Mechanical experiments. Optical experiments**

In our local physical reality “in the vicinity of the Earth’s surface”:

*every mechanical or optical experiment actually occurs in the common space of the two aforementioned frames of reference – the “**Earth-centered inertial (ECI) coordinate system**” and the “frame of reference, related to the Earth’s surface”.*

** In the mechanical experiments**, the material bodies in the atmosphere are involved in the Earth’s
rotation by the Earth’s gravity.

** In the optical experiments,** the photons are not involved in the Earth’s rotation, because they
have no mass!

The space is the medium of the existence of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. However, the gravitational and electromagnetic forces contract and warp the space itself. In this sense, the electromagnetic radiations are actually vibrations of the space itself.

**14) The velocity of the electromagnetic radiation (the speed of light)**

**The
two major frames of reference**, where we consider
the velocity of electromagnetic radiation, are *“the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface” *and* “the Earth-centered inertial (ECI) frame of reference”.*

For the contemporary physics, there is no difference between “the speed of light in the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface” and “the speed of light in the Earth-centered inertial (ECI) frame of reference”. This is because the modern physics has incorrectly accepted that the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames of reference.

However, the measured speed of light has different values in the different inertial frames of reference or in different directions in the same frame of reference (e.g. “in the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface”) – it is the first proven key-conclusion in this book.

The physical reality in the Universe shows
that *“speed of light in vacuum”* (in
the frame of reference related to the stationary space), is a local constant
for the entire electromagnetic spectrum, but it is different for areas with
different intensity of the gravitational field.

*“The “speed of light in empty space” is the correlation between the frequency and the wavelength in the whole electromagnetic spectrum, which is a local constant for our and for any other local time-spatial domain.” *(Sharlanov, 2016).

- (1)
- (2)
- (3)
- (4)
- (6)
- (7)
- (9)
- (10)
- (11)
- (12)
- (13)
- (14)
- (15)
- (16)
- (17)
- (18)
- (19)
- (20)
- (21)
- (22)
- (23)
- (24)
- (26)
- (27)
- (28)
- (44)
- (45)
- (46)
- (47)
- (48)
- (49)
- (51)
- (52)
- (53)
- (54)
- (55)
- (56)
- (57)
- (58)
- (59)
- (60)
- (61)
- (62)
- Earth-centered inertial coordinate system
- ECI coordinate system
- Euclidean vector
- Fig. 4.1
- Fig. 5.1
- Fig. 5.2
- Fig. 6.1
- Fig. 7.1
- Fig. 7.2
- Fig. 7.3
- Fig. 9.2
- formula how the speed of light changes
- frame of reference
- linear velocity of the Earth’s surface
- Mark 5
- mechanical experiments
- Newton’s law of universal gravitation
- Nm_i
- Nm_s
- Ns_i
- Ns_s
- optical experiments
- reference system
- Remark
- Remark
- Scalar
- scalar magnitude
- scalar projection
- Scalar projection
- speed of light in vacuum
- standard radiation
- step four
- synchronization criterion
- The Special Theory of Relativity – a Classical Review
- time-spatial domain
- vacuum density
- vector
- vector addition
- Vector projection of a vector
- Бележка 5
- време-пространствен домейн
- Линейната скорост на повърхността на Земята
- линейная скорость поверхности Земли
- отправна система
- Пространственно-временная область
- Ремарк
- система отсчёта
- системе отсчёта
- скоростта на светлината във вакуум
- Скорость света в вакууме
- Специалната теория на относителността – най-голямата заблуда във физиката на XX-ти век
- стандартно лъчение
- формула как се променя скоростта на светлината