# | PROBLEM 5: “Doppler effect” in the case of electromagnetic (non-material) waves.

#### Evidence about the erroneous acceptance by modern physics about the “red shift” and “blue shift” of the electromagnetic radiation frequency due to the “Doppler effect”.

Let’s first answer the question of why space is stationary – both at the micro- and macro-level. This is actually a consequence of Newton’s law of universal gravitation:

Space has no mass, and therefore the gravitational force affecting the space is zero and cannot bring the space into motion!

We can realize:

Mechanical waves can only be produced in mediums (substances) that have elasticity and momentum. In the case of mechanical waves, particles of matter oscillate (vibrate) in relation to an equilibrium position (equilibrium point) in the stationary space (not moving space), transmitting energy to neighboring material particles in the direction of wave propagation. Thus, the material particles do not move along with the wave-only energy is transported in the direction of wave propagation. The exchange of energy of any vibrating particle with particles, that are not in the direction of propagation of the mechanical wave, is a loss of energy for the wave, which restricts (limits) the distance of which the wave propagates. If we consider the propagation of a sound wave caused by a moving source in the stationary space (with respect to a receiver), e.g. a moving speaker (loudspeaker), then the number of oscillations per unit of time (frequency) that is measured by the receiver will depend on the speed of the source in relation to the receiver. This is the Doppler effect.

In the case of electromagnetic waves, however, there is no vibration of the quanta (photons) in the stationary space. The quantum is emitted with a strictly fixed energy (frequency), which does not depend on the speed of motion of the emitting atom in the stationary space. The quanta (photons) spread (move) through the stationary space at a certain speed and with a certain frequency (energy) if there is not any momentum exchange at a collision. The energy (frequency) of the photons (quanta), as well as the speed of the quanta in the stationary space, do not depend on the speed of the source in the stationary space in relation to the receiver! Therefore, the Doppler effect in the case of electromagnetic waves does not exist!

The Doppler effect is an effect of mechanical waves, which are vibrations of material particles. The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency and wavelength of a mechanical wave for an observer who is moving In relation to the wave source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842 on the basis of the conducted by him research with sound waves. The vibrations of the material particles are transmitted in the space, but only the vibrations are moving – without the particles themselves moving from the source to the receiver.

However, electromagnetic waves have no material character – they are vibrations of the electromagnetic field that exists on (and in) the space itself. Electromagnetic radiation has a wave-particle duality, i.e. simultaneously manifests itself as a wave and as a particle stream of quanta – tiny energy packets of electromagnetic radiation. The energy of each emitted or absorbed quantum of energy by a particular atom is given by the Planck relationship. It is equal to the difference between the energy levels of the participating pairs’ quantum energy states of the atom (Ephoton = E2 – E1 = ħν), where ν is the frequency, ħ is the Plank’s constant and E is the energy of the quantum. In other words, the “quantum energy states” of an atom are fixed, therefore the energy (frequency) of the emitted photons is fixed and does not depend on the speed of motion of the emitting atom in areas with uniform (the same) and unchanging intensity of the gravitational field. So, it is not permissible to make an analogy with the mechanical waves for the presence of the “Doppler effect” in the case of electromagnetic radiation.

If the “Doppler effect” exists in the case of electromagnetic waves, we will observe a difference in the frequency of the received electromagnetic signal from a precise source in the East-West and West-East directions, as well as at night and during the day (as a result of the motion of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun). However, such an effect is not observed…

The frequency, wavelength and speed of the emitted quanta (photons) do not change when propagated in a region with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field. The quanta can pass through a substance if their energy is high enough; can be absorbed by the substance; but can be reflected. When the quanta are reflected by a moving material body, their frequency (energy) is changed if the energy (frequency) of the electromagnetic quantum is comparable to the momentum of the moving object. Each atom of the moving body has a quantity of motion (momentum). Thus, at the collision of the photon with the moving atom, there is an energy exchange. The energy of the reflected photon changes, depending on the momentum of the atom (on the velocity of the material body). This means that the frequency of the reflected photon is changed, because (ΔE = ħ.Δν), where Δν is the frequency, and ħ is the Planck constant. In fact, the speed of the photon remains the same (c=λν), however, its frequency ν and wavelength λ change. This is the case with the incorrectly-called “Doppler radar”, or “Doppler gun” because the result is not due to the “Doppler effect”!

Conclusion: Therefore, the claim about the presence of the “Doppler effect” in the case of electromagnetic radiation (that the motion of the source of electromagnetic radiation causes “red-shift” or “blue-shift” of the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation, is actually another big delusion in modern physics.

As noted in subsection 10.2 of the monograph “The Special Theory of Relativity – the Biggest Blunder in Physics of the 20th Century”©, published at Smashwords and at Amazon, shift in the frequency of an electromagnetic signal emitted by a space probe is observed evidently when the space probe passes through a gravitational field with a highly changing intensity (for example, going down to the surface of a planet from the Solar system). In this case, the gradient of the change in the intensity of the gravitational field (through which the probe passes), is big. However, this shift is not due to the Doppler effect.

Proof that there is no Doppler effect at electromagnetic waves is that change in frequency is observed only when the electromagnetic waves are reflected (when the quanta collide with the atoms of the moving material body)! In cases of movement of the radiation source relative to the observer, no redshift is observed!!

If this shift is due to the Doppler effect, the received frequency of the emitted electromagnetic signal from a space probe (that orbits around a planet in equipotential orbit) would shift at every half-circumference of the space probe around the planet. However, such an effect is not observed … However, a displacement (redshift) is observed, when a space probe is going down to the surface of the planet (in a direction of increasing the intensity of the gravitational field) – (see the previous paragraph).

Vesto Melvin Slipher is an American astronomer who carried out the first observations of the shifting of spectral lines of electromagnetic radiation (of light) coming from distant galaxies. In September 1912, in “The radial velocity of the Andromeda Nebula”, in the inaugural volume of Lowell Observatory Bulletin, Slipher reports:

„The magnitude of this velocity, which is the greatest hitherto observed, raises the question whether the velocity like displacement might not be due to some other cause, but I believe we have at the present no other interpretation for it.“ (Slipher, 1912).

The redshift of the electromagnetic radiation coming from distant galaxies is due to the “energy-spatial relationship” existing in the energy-space-time continuum of the Universe. This is the “unrecognized principle of nature” as was the belief of Edwin Hubble! This principle is substantiated in the monograph “Accelerating Contraction of the Universe – the Reasonable Alternative”.

A real experimental proof that the Universe is contracting, is the discovery of the team of American astronomer Sandra Faber: Mapping a vast region of the Universe, including our galaxy, they found that all the galaxies are moving roughly parallel, like a great river of galaxies, at about 600 kilometers per second, heading towards a very, very large supercluster, super-supercluster of galaxies – a supercluster of real matter. They called this super-supercluster of galaxies the “Great Attractor”.

Yes, the Universe is contracting – and no need for fictions like “dark matter” and “dark energy”!!!!!!!!

Ignoring Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, modern physics tries to explain the delusion of the accelerating expansion of the Universe” by the inexplicable fiction of “dark energy” (whose nature is inexplicable even for the modern cosmologists themselves), as well as by the presence of an illogically high percentage of some unknown kind of “dark matter” in the Universe!!!!!!!!!!!!!!