# | PROBLEM 4: Gravitational Redshift – the acceptance by modern physics

### The Gravitational Redshift – evidence about the erroneous acceptance by modern physics.

1) According to Encyclopedia Britannica,         (https://www.britannica.com/science/astronomy/The-techniques-of-astronomy#ref1211541):

“The third effect of general relativity predicted by Einstein was the gravitational redshift. Light coming from a compact massive object should be slightly redshifted; that is, the light should have a longer wavelength.”

Einstein gives a “prediction” in his article “On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light” (Einstein, 1911) about the behavior of the quanta of electromagnetic radiation in the gravitational field. In this article, Einstein has derived a formula that shows the dependence of the frequency of any electromagnetic radiation on gravitational potential. This formula, however, was derived on the acceptance that the photon has a mass … It makes this “prediction” invalid:

If the light should have a longer wavelength (which means that the frequency of any electromagnetic radiation decreases) when moving away from a compact massive object (according to the derived formula), then the duration of one time-period will increase, i.e., the duration of one-second increases. It is because of the definition in SI of the unit of time:

“The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom, at rest at a thermodynamic temperature of 0oК.” (13th meeting of the CGPM, Resolution 1, 1967/68).

Therefore, at moving away from the compact massive object, the time will run slower in a weaker gravitational field – this contradicts, however, the conclusions of the general theory of relativity, and is not “The third effect of general relativity predicted by Einstein” (according to Encyclopedia Britannica).

Moreover, if the photon loses energy (which means its frequency) when overcoming the star’s gravity (as Einstein “proves”), then the photon will lose a different amount of energy depending on the mass of the star – i.e. the “redshift” will be different and the spectral series of the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom will be shifted depending on the mass of the star! Such dependence, however, is not confirmed by the observations of astronomers… and no astronomer has observed it!

Here we must consider one important fact. And this is because if the frequency of electromagnetic radiation is measured by means of the measurement unit “second”, which is defined by the frequency of electromagnetic radiation: If we measure the frequency of any electromagnetic radiation in regions with a different frequency – the measured frequency value will always be the same, because we will measure it with the changed unit of time (second).

(p.s.: The analysis of frequency measurement with measuring units defined in regions with different gravitational field intensity is presented in the electronic edition of the monograph “The Special Theory of Relativity – the Biggest Blunder in Physics of the 20th Century”).

2) According to Wikipedia,
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_redshift, retrieved in 2020):

“In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential. This is a direct result of gravitational time dilation – if one is outside of an isolated gravitational source, the rate at which time passes increases as one moves away from that source.”

Obviously, the second sentence of this quotation from Wikipedia contradicts the first sentence.

If the “electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency”, the duration of one time-period is increased (i.e. the duration of one “second” increases), which means that the time will run slower when “one moves away from that source”. Therefore, the statement about the gravitational redshift in the first sentence also contradicts with the conclusions of the general theory of relativity.

Conclusion: The supported statement about the gravitational redshift of the electromagnetic radiation when leaving an area of a strong gravitational field around a compact massive object, is a big delusion. In Fact, the influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and on the electromagnetic properties of atoms) is considered in detail in the monograph “The Special Theory of Relativity – the Biggest Blunder in Physics of The 20th Century” © (ISBN 9781370029372), and is presented on the sub-pages of the website “The influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and on the electromagnetic properties of atoms”.

It turns out that based on the logic based on the main idea of General Relativity, the emitted photons by any atom correspond to the intensity of the gravitational field where the atom is located (the surface of the respective star). At the photon propagation, its frequency, wavelength, and speed in vacuum increase in regions with lower gravity and consequently decrease when entering into regions of higher gravity. In this sense, the concept of “vacuum density” can be introduced, and this density depends on the intensity of the gravitational field. This concept is consistent with the concept of “electromagnetic energy per unit volume” (see “u” in formula (26)):

. Frequency, wavelength, and speed of electromagnetic radiation (light) in vacuum depend on the intensity of the gravitational field, on the “vacuum density”. Upon arrival (for example, on Earth’s surface), the frequency, wavelength, and speed of photons in vacuum will again be in correspondence with the gravitational field intensity of the Earth’s surface. The photon energy (its frequency) will again correspond to the transition between the same hyperfine levels of the ground state of the same atom (e.g., of the hydrogen atom, too).

If there was a gravitational redshift in the sense of modern physics, then the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom, which is divided into a series of spectral lines, corresponding to the specific transitions between the energy levels of the hydrogen atom (hydrogen spectral series) would be different for each star depending on the mass of the star determining its gravity. But such dependence is not registered!

However, a frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation is observing. In the above-mentioned monograph, in the section “Thesis on the behavior of the electromagnetic
radiation in the gravitational field of the Universe”
, it is noted:

Statement 10) The frequency of electromagnetic radiation is shifted when emitted from a moving remote object, if the source of the radiation passes (at the time of emitting) through areas where the intensity of the gravitational field is different or changes.

•  When passing through areas where the intensity of the gravitational field changes more strongly (higher gradient of intensity change), the frequency shifting will be greater.

•  Depending on the direction of change in the intensity of the gravitational field through which the source of electromagnetic radiation passes, the frequency shifts to the red end of the spectrum (frequency decreasing) or to the blue end of the spectrum (frequency increasing). Thus, when a space probe is going down to the surface of the planet (in a direction of increasing the intensity of the gravitational field), we observe a “red shift” of the emitted frequency;… and a “blue shift” of the emitted frequency is observed when the space probe is leaving the boundaries of the Solar system (the case of the anomalies in the acceleration of the space probes “Pioneer-10” and “Pioneer-11”).

•  However, the shift of the emitted frequency of electromagnetic signal when the source is passing through areas with different (or varying) intensity of gravitational field, is not due to the Doppler effect. The Doppler Effect (or Doppler shift), is an effect existing in the case of mechanical waves, which are vibrations of particles of matter belonging to a material propagation medium – vibrations (oscillations) of any material particle of the propagation medium around a stationary point in the reference frame related to the propagation medium of the mechanical wave. This is the change in the measured frequency and length of a mechanical wave ascertained by an observer who moves in the medium of the propagation of the mechanical wave relative to the source of the wave.
Unlike mechanical waves, electromagnetic radiation is a stream of quanta in the stationary space, and therefore the “Doppler effect” is not applicable to a non-existent analogy with mechanical waves.

The Pound-Rebka Experiment is known as one of the classical tests of general relativity  – a “gravitational redshift experiment”, which measures the change of frequency of light moving in a gravitational field.  The experiment, however, is quite complex in its technical details, which allows different results (what we want) to be obtained when changing the gain of some of the amplifiers (to prove different assertions). The “proven” assertion in this experiment is that the photons change their frequency. When photons from the top of the tower were measured at its bottom, their wavelengths were decreased (blue-shifted). It means that photons’ frequency increase when they travel toward the surface of the Earth. However, atomic clocks run faster in the mountains (slower at the sea level!) Is this a paradox?

As was noted in “On some paradoxes and absurdities in physics and cosmology“, the existing “paradoxes” in physics are in fact a consequence or attempt at an incorrect explanation of the physical reality.

The following subpage analyzes Einstein’s article “On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light” (Einstein, 1911).