| PROBLEM 2: The Special Theory of Relativity


The content of this web page is excerpts of the published printed book in Bulgaria
The Special Theory of Relativity – a Classical Review,
that almost corresponds to the e-book “The Special Theory of Relativity – the Biggest
Blunder in Physics of the 20th Century”©, published at Smashwords and at Amazon.


Abstract.

This part reveals the essence of special relativity. At the beginning are shown the foundations of our perception of the absoluteness of space and time. A separate chapter is devoted to the analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”, where Einstein presents the special theory of relativity. The analysis shows exactly where and how the erroneous claim that “the speed of light is the same in all inertial reference frames” is applied; that Einstein’s conclusion that “we cannot attach any absolute signification to the concept of simultaneity”, is based only on this erroneous claim. This claim, however, has been experimentally proven to be false (see the analyses of the experiments in the subpages of “Problem 1: The constancy of the speed of light“. The conclusion about the special theory of relativity is given below after the analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”. Moreover, with the analyses of the three basic types “fundamental tests of the special relativity”, it will undeniably be revealed that the special theory of relativity turns out to be the biggest blunder in physics of the 20th century.


Absoluteness of time and space. Measurement and units of measurement

Before we begin analyzing the article, let us consider in more detail our perception of absoluteness of the space and time in our local time-spatial area “near the surface of the Earth”. Our perception of the absoluteness is due to the approximately equal intensity of the gravitational field in this area. If we need to be more precise, the intensity of the gravitational field is exactly the same only at sea level.

About the “absoluteness” of the space in our local time-spatial area

Obtaining information about an object as part of the overall perception is essential to us. If we move away from an object, it will look smaller, but if we go back to it, we see that its dimensions have not changed. In other words, the remoteness of the object to the observer creates an illusion of “reducing the size of the object”. This is an illusion because, in fact, the dimensions of the object have not changed.

An illusion of “reducing the size in direction of movement” also exists when observing a moving object. Even using a high-quality device, the moving object may not even be registered, if its dimensions are small enough and the speed is high enough. But this is also an illusion caused by the way of getting the information, because if the observer moves along with the object, then this illusion will not exist!

We make these reflections so that we can distinguish the reality from the illusions and that the scientific theories must correspond to the reality rather than illusions

But let us go back to the “absoluteness” of space. The space has no mass and according to Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the gravitational forces cannot bring the space into motion – i.e. that the space is stationary. Therefore, the space does not revolve with the Earth. The influence of gravitational forces on the space is that they “bend” and “contract” the space (“space contraction”). In our local spatial area, the intensity of the gravitational field is the same and unchanging. Therefore, the “contraction” of the space is the same and unchangeable, too. This is a reason we percept the space as “absolute”.

Therefore, we can take any point in the local stationary space for an origin of a “stationary coordinate system”, and the axes to be dimensioned with a selected measuring unit – for example, the “meter” in the SI system. Thus, each stationary material point in a “stationary coordinate system” has fixed (unchangeable) coordinates corresponding to its location in the space.

Any change in the position of a material point in a “stationary coordinate system” is a function of the scalar quantity “time”. This change, we call “motion of the material point” in а stationary coordinate system. In our local time-spatial area, “the motion” is described by the Newton’s laws of motion (the foundation for the classical mechanics).

About the “absoluteness” of time in our local time-spatial area

“Time”, as a physics term, is related to events – at any moment of time, different events start or end. “Time” in physics is a scalar magnitude, but it has one direction and always flows in the direction of “the future” without having anything to influence on it. Two are the basic concepts related to the physical magnitude “time” – these are “moment in the time”, and “time interval”.

•  The term “moment” inside the time is inextricably linked to the concept of “simultaneity of events”. We cannot determine a given moment (point) of the time, without associating it with a time-recording device (e.g. clock). For example, we usually associate a certain moment of starting of some event with the event “a specific position of the clock arrows” – i.e. we are actually talking about the simultaneous occurrence of two events.

•  The “time interval” we associate with the duration of time between two events. The standardized measuring unit of time is associated with a precisely accepted time interval – for example, this is the “second” in the SI system.

So, if we obey the obligatory logical sequence, it follows that if there is no simultaneity of events (e.g. the correspondence with the clock’s arrows), then we cannot talk about a moment (a point) inside the time. And if we cannot talk about a moment of occurrence (beginning) or end of an event – we cannot talk about “time interval” and about the unit of measurement of time (as a duration between two moments: between the “beginning” and the “end” of one second). Moreover, if there is no “simultaneity of events”, the “end” of each preceding second and the “beginning” of each subsequent second will not be “simultaneous events”. Therefore, we cannot measure the time. Therefore, we cannot have any physical equation where “time” appears… Then, let us realize the absurdity of the facts:

In the special theory of relativity, Einstein proves the lack of simultaneity of events using physical equations which, in fact, are always based on the presence of simultaneity of events!

But let us go back to the “absoluteness” of the time in our local time-spatial area “near the Earth’s surface”, where the intensity of the gravitational field is the same – meaning that the measurement unit of time, we have defined, is constant. There is no doubt about the simultaneity of events and the constancy of the time interval between every two events – which again means the constancy of the chosen measurement unit of time. Therefore, from the point of view of the physical reality in our local time-spatial area– “the time is absolute”.

Therefore, any “special relativity” about the time due to motion in our local time-spatial area is an ILLUSION!

Indeed, in determining the simultaneity of events in our local time-spatial area, there are also illusions caused by the way of obtaining the information. Two clocks can be synchronized (to show exactly the same time). If an observer with one clock is distant from the other, however, then the indication of the remote clock will be observed differently – the information will arrive with a delay. This difference does not mean that there is no simultaneity of the events “readings of the two clocks”. This difference is not real, as is unreal the “reduced size of an observed remote object”, too. These differences are the result of the process of reaching the information to the observer, rather than “lack of simultaneity” or any real “size reduction”.  The observer will make sure that the difference in readings is an illusion if they go back to the remote clock with their own clock. Then they will make sure that there is no difference in either the dimensions or the clock readings of the remote clock.

Therefore, let us have two synchronized super-accurate “atomic” clocks at sea level (where the intensity of the gravity field is definitely the same). Let one of them move on the surface of the ocean – but wherever it moves, at whatever speed it moves, … after its return to the second clock: the clocks will show exactly same time, they will show exactly same parts of seconds (even if a full Earth tour is made and the date is different). But if one of the watches is transported to a space station and then returned to Earth, it will be found that this clock is in a hurry.

Now, let us go to the sub-page:

=> to the Analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”, where Einstein has presented the special theory of relativity. – Physics.bg

=> to the parent webpage