The existing “paradoxes” in physics are in fact a consequence or attempt at an incorrect explanation of the physical reality. The twin paradox and other time paradoxes are related to the theory of relativity. Many paradoxes are related to Goedel’s theorems of incompleteness.
But here are some absurdities that nobody thinks about but that everyone sees …
About the age of the Universe
If someone claims that the age of the Universe is 13, 15 or 17 billion years, it should be asked: “Where in the Universe the used unit of time is defined in this calculation?”. Obviously, the duration of a year on the planet Earth can be equal to one “second” in areas with an extremely strong gravitational field…
Conclusion: Therefore, when we talk about the age of the entire Universe, using the unit of time defined on the surface of a small planet in the Solar System – any such statement does not make sense.
About the unit of length “light year”
The “light year” is a unit of length used in astronomy, defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days).
The unit of time “light year” is based on the misconception of modern physics that the speed of light in a vacuum is а limit speed and constant throughout the Universe. In fact, the “speed of light in vacuum” is a local constant for every local region in the Universe with the same gravitational field intensity. However, the speed of light in vacuum depends on the intensity of the gravitational field (see in detail “The influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and on the electromagnetic properties of atoms”). The fact that the speed of radar signals (and of any electromagnetic radiation) is lower in areas with stronger gravity (near the Sun), was proven experimentally for the first time by the American astrophysicist Irwin I. Shapiro in 1964 and was later confirmed again highly accurately by the “Mariner-6” and “Mariner-7” space probes while they orbited the planet Mars.
However, the dependence of the speed of light on the force of gravity (the dependence on the intensity of the gravitational field), is a natural law that is yet to be defined.
Conclusion: The use of the unit of length “light year” must be discontinued.