| On some paradoxes and absurdities in physics and cosmology

The existing “paradoxes” in physics are in fact a consequence or attempt at an incorrect explanation of the physical reality. The twin paradox and other time paradoxes are related to the theory of relativity. Many paradoxes are related to Gödel’s theorems of incompleteness.

But here are some absurdities that nobody thinks about but that everyone sees …

1. About the Age of the Universe

If someone claims that the age of the Universe is 13, 15 or 17 billion years, it should be asked: “Where in the Universe the used unit of time is defined in this calculation?”. Obviously, the duration of a year on the planet Earth can be equal to one “second” in areas with an extremely strong gravitational field…

Conclusion: Therefore, when we talk about the age of the entire Universe, using the unit of time defined on the surface of a small planet in the Solar System – any such statement does not make sense.

2. About the unit of length “light year”

The “light year” is a unit of length used in astronomy, defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days).

The unit of time “light year” is based on the misconception of modern physics that the speed of light in vacuum is а limit speed and constant throughout the Universe. In fact, the “speed of light in vacuum” is a local constant for every local region in the Universe with the same gravitational field intensity. However, the speed of light in vacuum depends on the intensity of the gravitational field (see in detail “The influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation and on the electromagnetic properties of atoms”). The fact that the speed of radar signals (and of any electromagnetic radiation) is lower in areas with stronger gravity (near the Sun), was proven experimentally for the first time by the American astrophysicist Irwin I. Shapiro in 1964 and was later confirmed again highly accurately by the “Mariner-6” and “Mariner-7” space probes while they orbited the planet Mars.

However, the dependence of the speed of light on the force of gravity (the dependence on the intensity of the gravitational field), is a natural law that is yet to be defined.

Conclusion: The use of the unit of length “light year” must be discontinued.

3. About the “red shift” and “blue shift” of the frequency of electromagnetic radiation, assumed to be due to the “Doppler effect”

The Gravitational Redshift – evidence about the erroneous acceptance by modern physics:

According to Encyclopedia Britannica, (https://www.britannica.com/science/astronomy/The-techniques-of-astronomy#ref1211541):

“The third effect of general relativity predicted by Einstein was the gravitational redshift. Light coming from a compact massive object should be slightly redshifted; that is, the light should have a longer wavelength.”

Einstein gives a “prediction” in his article “On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light” (Einstein, 1911) about the behavior of the quanta of electromagnetic radiation in the gravitational field. In this article, Einstein has derived a formula that shows the dependence of the frequency of any electromagnetic radiation on gravitational potential. This formula, however, was derived on the acceptance that the photon has a mass … It makes this “prediction” invalid:

If the light should have a longer wavelength (which means that the frequency of any electromagnetic radiation decreases) when moving away from a compact massive object (according to the derived formula), then the duration of one time-period will increase, i.e., the duration of one-second increases. It is because of the definition in SI of the unit of time:

“The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom, at rest at a thermodynamic temperature of 0oК.” (13th meeting of the CGPM, Resolution 1, 1967/68).

Therefore, at moving away from the compact massive object, the time will run slower in a weaker gravitational field – this contradicts, however, the conclusions of the general theory of relativity, and is not “The third effect of general relativity predicted by Einstein” (according to Encyclopedia Britannica).

Moreover, if the photon loses energy (which means its frequency) when overcoming the star’s gravity (as Einstein “proves”), then the photon will lose a different amount of energy depending on the mass of the star – i.e. the “redshift” will be different and the spectral series of the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom will be shifted depending on the mass of the star! Such dependence, however, is not confirmed by the observations of the astronomers… and no astronomer has observed it!

Mechanical waves can only be produced in mediums (substances) that have elasticity and momentum. In the case of mechanical waves, particles of matter oscillate (vibrate) in relation to an equilibrium position (equilibrium point) in the stationary space (not moving space), transmitting energy to neighboring material particles in the direction of wave propagation. Thus, the material particles do not move along with the wave-only energy is transported in the direction of wave propagation. The exchange of energy of vibrating particle with particles, that are not in the direction of propagation of the mechanical wave, is a loss of energy for the wave, which restricts (limits) the distance of which the wave propagates. If we consider the propagation of a sound wave caused by a moving source in the stationary space (with respect to a receiver), e.g. a moving speaker (loudspeaker), then the number of oscillations per unit of time (frequency) that is measured by the receiver will depend on the speed of the source in relation to the receiver. This is the Doppler effect.

In the case of electromagnetic waves, however, electromagnetic waves have no material character – there is no vibration of the quanta (photons) in the stationary space. The quantum is emitted with a strictly fixed energy (frequency), which does not depend on the speed of motion of the emitting atom in the stationary space. The quanta (photons) spread (move) through the stationary space at a certain speed and with a certain frequency (energy) if there is not any momentum exchange at a collision. The energy (frequency) of the photons (quanta), as well as the speed of the quanta in the stationary space, do not depend on the speed of the source in the stationary space in relation to the receiver! Therefore, the Doppler effect in the case of electromagnetic waves does not exist!

The energy of each emitted or absorbed quantum of energy by a particular atom is given by the Planck relationship. It is equal to the difference between the energy levels of the participating pairs’ quantum energy states of the atom (Ephoton = E2 – E1 = ħν), where ν is the frequency, ħ is the Plank’s constant and E is the energy of the quantum. In other words, the “quantum energy states” of an atom are fixed, therefore the energy (frequency) of the emitted photons is fixed and does not depend on the speed of motion of the emitting atom in areas with uniform (the same) and unchanging intensity of the gravitational field. So, it is not permissible to make an analogy with the mechanical waves for the presence of “Doppler effect” in the case of electromagnetic radiation.

The frequency, wavelength, and speed of the emitted quanta (photons) do not change when propagated in a region with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field. The quanta can pass through a substance if their energy is high enough; can be absorbed by the substance; but can be reflected. When the quanta are reflected by a moving material body, their frequency (energy) is changed if the energy (frequency) of the electromagnetic quantum is comparable to the momentum of the moving object. Each atom of the moving body has a quantity of motion (momentum). Thus, at the collision of the photon with the moving atom, there is an energy exchange. The energy of the reflected photon changes, depending on the momentum of the atom (on the velocity of the material body). This means that the frequency of the reflected photon is changed, because (ΔE = ħ.Δν), where Δν is the frequency, and ħ is the Planck constant. In fact, the speed of the photon remains the same (c=λν), however, its frequency ν and wavelength λ change. This is the case with the incorrectly-called “Doppler radar”, or “Doppler gun” because the result is not due to the “Doppler effect”!

If the “Doppler effect” exists in the case of electromagnetic waves, we will observe a difference in the frequency of the received electromagnetic signal from a precise source in the East-West and West-East directions, as well as at night and during the day (as a result of the motion of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun). However, such an effect is not observed… red shift is observed only when the electromagnetic waves are reflected – only when the quanta collide with the atoms of the material body and change their momentum (energy)!


Therefore, the claim about the presence of the “Doppler effect” in the case of electromagnetic radiation (that the motion of the source of electromagnetic radiation causes “red-shift” or “blue-shift” of the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation, is actually another big delusion in modern physics.

This fallacy also gave rise to the second big blunder in physics of the 20th century – the “Accelerated Expansion of the Universe” (the biggest blunder turns out to be the Special theory of relativity!

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