As an example of a region with stronger gravitation – this is the time-spatial region “near the surface of Jupiter”, where the force of gravitation is about 318 times stronger than that in the region“near the surface of the Earth”.
In different regions of the Universe, the level of contraction/expansion of space-time is different, depending on the strength of the gravitational field. As already mentioned, the electromagnetic field and the gravitational field exist on the distorted by the matter space in the Universe. Therefore, it is logical that in the warped space by the strong gravitational field (high “space density”) – electromagnetic waves will propagate more difficult. It means that in a stronger gravitational field, the electromagnetic waves will vibrate more difficult (the frequency ν of their oscillations will decrease) and that the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation λ will also decrease ‒ they will be smaller compared to the regions with weaker gravity. This logical conclusion coincides with the idea of the general theory of relativity (as well as with the following three consequences):
The first consequence is that in regions with a strong gravitational field, the time there goes/ passes slower (which coincides with the idea of the general theory of relativity). Indeed, the so-defined “second” (the base unit of time in the International System of Units), will be longer, because the duration of exactly the same number of “time periods” Ns_s of the same standard electromagnetic radiation, we have chosen, will be longer because its frequency v will be lower. For the longer “second”, any electromagnetic radiation from the electromagnetic spectrum will again have the respective number of periods Ns_i, because the influence of gravity is for the entire electromagnetic spectrum (the frequencies of their oscillations will be correspondingly lower).
If the reader logically analyses this case, they will see that the lower frequency can be detected only, if the used unit of time was defined in another region with different (weaker) gravitation. Otherwise, if we use the unit of time, defined in the same region, there is no way to obtain other numerical values as a result of the measurement of the frequency. This is because of the so-called “circular reference”: In the case, if we use the new changed unit of time (defined as a duration of the same number of oscillations Ns_s of the decreased “standard” frequency), then the result obtained by measuring the frequency of the same electromagnetic radiation will have the same numerical value. Moreover, this is true for any frequency of the whole electromagnetic spectrum! The awareness that we cannot detect the change, using the changing unit of measure (in synchrony), is an important part of understanding the uncertainty in the macro-world.
The second consequence is that in regions with a strong gravitational field, the defined in the same way base unit of length “meter” (according to the way it is defined in the International System of Units), will become shorter (as a sum of the lengths of exactly the same number Nm_s) of actually decreased wavelength λ (suppressed by the gravitation) of the same “standard electromagnetic radiation” we have chosen. Again, it should be noted that the reduction of the wavelength of any electromagnetic radiation from the whole electromagnetic spectrum, could be detected only if we use the base unit of length defined in a region, where the gravitation is different (weaker).
The third consequence is more than obvious. It is that in regions with a strong gravitational field, the actual speed of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum will be lower because ν and λ of any electromagnetic radiation are lower (c=λν). It turns out that the lower speed of light in vacuum in regions with stronger gravity is a consequence of general relativity, i.e. that the speed of light in vacuum is not a fundamental constant for the whole Universe! The new lower speed of the electromagnetic radiation in vacuum will be valid again for the whole electromagnetic spectrum – it will be again a local physical constant in this time-spatial region with the same, but stronger gravitation. Moreover, we have to emphasize again that:
If we measure the speed of light in vacuum by means of the base units of time and length, which are defined in the same region and in the same way, (for example, by fixing the same numbers Ns_s and Nm_s) – we will obtain again exactly the same numerical value for the speed of light in vacuum! This is because we have used the changed units of measurement in this region with stronger gravitation – (the longer “second” and the shorter “meter”) … what is an example of a “circular reference”!
The experimental evidence:
The fact that the speed of light in vacuum decreases when photons pass through regions with a strong gravitational field is not only a logical result – it was also proven experimentally. American astrophysicist Irwin I. Shapiro proposed an experiment and performed it in 1964. The gravitational time delay effect was detected when measuring the round-trip travel time of the bounced radar beams off the surface of Venus when Venus is on the opposite side of the Sun while the Earth orbits around it (when the Earth, Sun, and Venus are most favorably aligned). In this way, the radar signals pass through the strong gravitational field (in close proximity to the Sun). Of course, it can be assumed that the radar signals have traveled on a longer trajectory, bypassing the Sun in the distorted space. However, the space near the Sun is suppressed (contracted) by the strong gravitation. It means that if we use the longer unit of length “meter” defined on the Earth’s surface – the resulting number as a result of the measurement of the path length of the radar signal will be less. In this way, however, we can go to uncertainty… The real fact is actually, that the time, but not the path had been measured in the experiment, and with the units of measurement, defined on the surface of the Earth! Thus, the lower speed of radar signals was fixed, when they pass through a region with a strong gravitational field. Dr. Irwin I. Shapiro (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory), reported in 1964 in the Journal of Astrophysics:
“…according to the general theory, the speed of a light wave depends on the strength of the gravitational potential along its path.” (Shapiro, 1964).
It is clear that Dr. Shapiro had in mind the change in the speed of light, in particular, the idea that Einstein discussed in his article in 1911, “On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light”. In this paper, Einstein asserts:
“If we call the speed of light at the origin of co-ordinates c0, then the speed of light c at a place with the gravitation potential Ф will be given by the relation:
The principle of the constancy of the speed of light holds good according to this theory in a different form from the one that usually underlies the ordinary theory of relativity.” (Einstein, 1911).
First, Einstein did not mention anything in this article about the used measurement units. Obviously, in all equations of his theories, he uses the measurement units defined on the Earth’s surface, as though they are the same and valid for the whole Universe (… and he himself comes to the conclusion that they are not the same). In his paper“On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light” (Einstein, 1911), Einstein derived a formula that shows the dependence of the frequency of any electromagnetic radiation on the gravitational potential (on the intensity of the gravitational field):
The frequency, however, defines the base unit of time “second”! This formula concerns also the frequency by which the base unit for the time “second” is defined. Therefore, the base unit of time “second” also changes in places with different gravitation potential (with different intensity of the gravitational field), because the duration of the same number 9,192,631,770 time-periods will change (see the definition of the “second” in SI). According to Einstein’s reasoning, the photon generated on the surface of the star loses its energy in overcoming the star’s gravity on its way to Earth. We know that
Ephoton = ћν. This means that on the surface of the star, where gravity is strongest, the photon’s energy is greater than after overcoming the star’s gravity. Therefore, according to this formula, in regions with strong gravity, the frequency is higher, which means that the base unit of time “second” becomes shorter (with a shorter duration) and time flows faster! And that goes against the General Theory of Relativity!
Actually, this formula (28) is not deduced correctly, because, when deriving it, Einstein accepts that the photon has a mass! Furthermore, Einstein only proposed the formula (27) for the change of the speed of light in vacuum depending on the gravitational potential, without deriving it!
In this paper, Einstein does not discuss the change in the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. In fact, Einstein accepts that the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation does not depend on gravitational potential! This is evident from the analogy of the proposed formula (27) for the change of the speed of light in vacuum depending on the gravitational potential, with the formula (28) for the change in frequency.
However, in other articles related to the general theory of relativity, it is proved that in regions with stronger gravitation, the base unit of length “metre” is shortened (the wavelength of any electromagnetic radiation is contracted) – see the definition of the “metre” in SI accepted in 1960. It means that the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is changing too!
Secondly, actually formula (28) is not derived correctly because Einstein accepts that the photon has mass when he derives it!
The consequence of this acceptance of Einstein is that the photon loses energy when it overcomes the star’s gravity (as Einstein “proves”). If this is true, then the photons will lose a different amount of energy depending on the star’s mass as they leave it on their way to Earth – i.e. the “redshift” will be different and the spectral series of the emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom – will shift depending on the mass of the star!
However, there is no such dependence… and no astronomer has observed it! Therefore, Einstein’s claim in this article that:
“Thus according to our view the spectral lines of sunlight, as compared with the corresponding spectral lines of terrestrial light sources, must be somewhat displaced toward the red.”
… there is no reason to be supported by modern physics!
However, incomprehensible why, this is inconsistent (in contradiction) with the interpretation of the “gravitational redshift” according to contemporary physics of nowadays (see more details in subsection 19.4 of the book).
The time delay effect registered by Dr. Shapiro is actually registering the decrease of the speed of light in vacuum in regions where the gravitational field is stronger. This fact was confirmed highly accurately using controlled transponders aboard the “Mariner-6” and “Mariner-7” spacecraft as they orbited the planet Mars. The transponder is a device that emits an identifying signal in response to an interrogating received signal. This is a far more accurate test than ordinarily bouncing radar beams off the surface of the planet, because surface irregularities introduce an element of error that cannot be controlled.
p.s.: On the “Theory of Everything”
The logic presented in the last subpages, about the influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum, fully coincides with the views of the supporters of the cosmological theory of the “Big Bang”:
“Let us consider the behavior of electromagnetic radiation propagating towards a “black hole”. With the increasing intensity of the gravitational field, the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation falls (to zero), the wavelength shortens (to zero) and, consequently, the velocity of electromagnetic radiation drops (to zero). So, with the propagation of the electromagnetic radiation to “the black hole” – the electromagnetic radiation converts to a stationary point (vanishes into “nothingness”). Let us now consider the behavior of electromagnetic radiation, which escapes at some condition from a “black hole”. In that case, we register the birth of photons (energy) out of nothing, but in more specific terms – the birth of a particle from the “nothingness”…
Then, what is the Big Bang – may be the birth of matter of the Universe from “a global black hole of the Universe”, which actually is “the birth of the matter and energy of the Universe from the “nothingness”.” (Sharlanov, 2012b).
In this sense, the “Theory of Everything” turns out to be a “Theory of Nothingness” …