| Second type tests: Based on inadmissible analogy

These are “tests” that use references to unsubstantiated statements that are believed to be correct, only by a non-existent analogy with truly proven correct statements. Such is the case with the third, according to Robertson (Robertson, 1949), “fundamental test” of the special theory of relativity:

Ives–Stilwell experiment.

According to contemporary physics, the Ives-Stilwell experiment (Ives & Stilwell, 1938), tested the contribution of relativistic time dilation to the Doppler shift of the frequency of electromagnetic radiation (the light).

In the experiment, a tube for “canal (channel) rays” (a mixture of hydrogen ions) is used, which is actually a gas discharge tube in which the cathode is made of perforated plates. An AC rectifier, capable of delivering up to 30,000 volts, has been used to maintain a high negative potential applied to the accelerating electrode, through whose openings (channels) the accelerated ions emitting photons pass. The beam of emitted photons and its reflected image are observed simultaneously with the help of a concave mirror, shifted to 7° from the beam. A measuring microscope is used to fix the displacement of Hβ spectral line of the Balmer spectral series of the hydrogen atom emission spectrum. This displacement was claimed to be due to the Doppler effect.

However, the Ives-Stilwell experiment (1938), along with their follow-up experiment (Ives & Stilwell, 1941), has a number of unsatisfactory aspects. Their experimental results are deemed inconclusive not only in the comprehensive review by Wallace Kantor, a seasoned experimenter in this field. (Kantor, 1971).

The correct explanation of the results of the experiment is that the frequency (the energy) of the emitted quantum (photon) is always the same, regardless of the direction of movement and the speed of the hydrogen ion that emitted it. In our case, the frequency of the emitted quantum by the hydrogen atom corresponds only and precisely to the difference in energy states of the atom corresponding to the Hβ spectral line of the Balmer spectral series – (Ephoton = E2 – E1 = ħν), where ħ is the Planck’s constant, ν is the frequency, and E is the energy of the quantum (photon). However, the energy of the emitted quantum (which means its frequency), changes at the collision with the moving hydrogen ion that belongs to the moving oncoming beam.

Actually, the Ives-Stilwell experiment obeys Schrodinger’s dynamical treatment. According to Schrodinger, the so-called “Doppler effect for photons” is nothing but a consequence of the energy exchange in case of collision between an atom (in our case a hydrogen ion) and a quantum (photon). This energy exchange depends on the speed (momentum) of the hydrogen ion, and on the angle between the trajectories of the colliding hydrogen ion and the photon. After the collision, the speed of the photon remains the same (c0 = λν), however, its energy (frequency) will be changed – (ΔE = ħ Δν).

Therefore, the explanation that the observed changing the frequency of electromagnetic radiation is due to the “Doppler effect” – is not true:

If the “Doppler effect” is valid for electromagnetic waves, then the frequency of the emitted photons in the “East direction” (by a stationary source in relation to the moving ground surface), will be different from the frequency of the emitted photons in “West direction”!

In subsection 19.3 below: the incorrectly called “Doppler radar” is discussed, when the energy) of the photon is changing at the collision with a moving object. The Doppler effect is an effect of the mechanical waves, which are vibrations of the matter, but the electromagnetic waves have no material character. Moreover, to state “by analogy” (about the presence of Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves), without real arguments, is not admissible in science.

Concerning the Mössbauer rotor experiments that are also considered as confirmation of the “relativistic Doppler effect”. The experiments are based on the Mössbauer effect. The Mössbauer effect, also called recoil-free gamma-ray resonance absorption, is a nuclear process permitting the resonance absorption of gamma rays. The physical phenomenon was discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958. The absorption occurs at exactly the same energy of the quanta, resulting in а strong resonant absorption of the gamma quanta by the atomic nuclei in the lattice of the solid, so the energy is not lost at the recoil.

The Mössbauer rotor experiments usually use a source of gamma rays located in the center of a rotating disk. The gamma rays are sent to the resonance absorber, located on the rim of the rotating disk. A stationary counter, measuring the number of unabsorbed quanta, is placed outside the rotating resonance absorber. When the disk with the absorber rotates, the number of unabsorbed quanta, measured by the stationary counter outside the rotation disk, increases.

According to the explanation given according to the accepted explanation with “Doppler effect for photons”, the characteristic resonance absorption frequency of the moving absorber at the rim of the rotating disk should decrease due to relativistic time dilation, so the passage of the gamma-rays through the absorber increases, which is subsequently measured by the stationary counter outside the absorber.

In fact, the result of the Mössbauer rotor-experiments also obey the Schrӧdinger’s dynamical treatment. They are also explained as a consequence of the energy exchange (on the collision) between an atom (in that case the atom in the lattice of the solid) and a gamma-quantum. Actually, the process of absorption is a momentary energy process at the impact between the gamma-quanta (with precisely certain energy) and resonant nuclei in the rotating absorber on the rim of the rotating disk. When the absorber rotates, the momentum of atoms of the absorber changes and the energy of atoms becomes different from the necessary exact “resonance” energy at the absorption of the gamma-quantum.

Therefore, this is the reason why the passage of the gamma-quantum through the absorber increases in the rotation of the disc and subsequently reported by the stationary counter outside the absorber.

Concerning Kündig’s experiment on the so-called “transverse Doppler shift” (Kündig, 1963). There are different doubts about the given explanation of the experiment. For example:

“We are inclined to think that the revealed deviation of ΔE/E from relativistic prediction cannot be explained by any instrumental error and thus represents a physical effect. In particular, we assume that the energy shift of the absorption resonant line is induced not only by the standard time dilation effect, but also by some additional effect missed at the moment, and related perhaps to the fact that resonant nuclei in the rotating absorber represent a macroscopic quantum system and cannot be considered as freely moving particles.” (Kholmetskii & all, 2008).

Actually, the real explanation of the Kündig’s experiment is the same as given for the Mössbauer rotor experiments.

We can conclude that the Doppler effect is an effect of the mechanical waves, which are vibrations of matter, of the vibrating particles (matter) in the stationary space. The electromagnetic field together with the gravitational field exists on the space and warps the space. That is why, the electromagnetic radiation is a vibration (oscillation) of the space itself, and therefore, the “Doppler effect” is not applicable to the electromagnetic radiation.

Moreover, the delusion of the Doppler effect for photons has caused other big problems in physics today, such as: the accelerated expansion of the Universe, and the dark matter and the dark energy in the Universe. These problems also find their explanation, according to the “Thesis on the behavior of the electromagnetic radiation in the gravitational field of the Universe” presented in chapter 10 of the book and will be presented in another book in the series “On the True Nature of Things in Physics”.

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