1. The uncertainty (indeterminacy) in quantum mechanics (in the micro-world).
We know about the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle) in quantum mechanics. Introduced first in 1927 by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, the uncertainty principle states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be predicted from initial conditions, and vice versa.
What is the cause of uncertainty (the essence of uncertainty)?
With the help of the primary physical constants we create (measurement units), and we have the opportunity to use mathematics in the field of physics!
All the equations of theoretical physics are based on the constant (unchangeable) units of measurement in the scope of the equation. In quantum mechanics (in the local time-spatial domain in the micro-world), we try to use units of measurement that we are defined in our higher-level local time-spatial domain).
So, the indeterminacy of the units of measurement at the quantum level actually determines the indeterminacy in the equations for the micro-world we construct in our local time-space domain!
2. The uncertainty (indeterminacy) in the macro-world (in the global physical reality in the Universe).
The space in the Universe is the medium of the existence of the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field.
We can define the “Local physical reality” as a local time-spatial domain, where the intensity of the gravitational field is uniform (the same). Let us consider a time-spatial domain with uniform (the same) intensity of the gravitational field, where the measurement base units of time and of length are defined by means of the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation – see the adopted definitions and by the “Bureau International des Poids et Mesures” (BIPM). Let us recall that the measurement units are our primary physical constants.
An important question:
What will happen, if the intensity of the gravitational field in this local time-spatial domain will change, but remains uniform (the same) in all points)?
Different intensity of gravitational field means a different deformation of space and time. If the existing medium changes (the “contraction” of the space changes) – therefore, the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation propagating in the space, will change synchronously, too. It means that the frequencies and the wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation of the entire electromagnetic spectrum will change in synchrony; it means that the properties of the atoms will change in synchrony. Therefore, the units of measurement will change – also in synchrony, because they are defined by means of the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation. The physical constants (like the speed of light in vacuum), will change, too. However, if we measure the changed physical constants (in the time-spatial domain under consideration), by means of the changed units of measurement (defined again there) – we will obtain again the same numerical values, because the laws of physics remain the same. In other words, the entire physical reality will change in synchrony, but we will not be able to measure (determine) this change. Therefore, the perception of “absoluteness” will be perfect, and the delusion will be “irrefutable”!
“To summarize, we should define that in our local physical reality (with approximately the same intensity of the gravitational field), exists:
– perception of local absoluteness against the background of global
relativity in the Universe; i.e.
– perception of complete local certainty (definiteness), against the
background of overall uncertainty in the macro-world (Universe level).” (Sharlanov, 2012b).
On the other side, we receive information from the Universe only by means of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic signals travel to the Earth for an uncertain period of time (the unit of time is changing during the travel), they pass an indeterminate (uncertain) distance in the warped space of the Universe (where the units of length and time are changing during the travel) … i.e. with an indeterminate (uncertain) velocity.
Therefore, we can summarize:
“The uncertainty of the macro-world consists in the fact that we cannot measure or calculate in our local time-spatial domain (where the units of time and length are defined by means of the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation):
– neither the change of the defined by us units,
– nor the change of all our local constants,
because they all change in perfect synchrony with the change of the entire physical reality.
Also, we can judge only approximately, but we cannot measure or calculate whatever change in the physical reality in another remote time-spatial domain with different level of contraction/expansion of the space-time, because the units of measurement there are uncertainly different.” (Sharlanov, 2012a).
Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems. It has its limits of applicability. As has been emphasized, for an equation of theoretical physics to be valid, it is necessary that the measurement units, used in it, be constant within the scope of action of this equation. When we use the measurement units defined on the surface of our small planet where the intensity of the gravitational field may differ greatly from the intensity in some other remote region of the Universe, we can only deceive ourselves that the resulting solutions of these equations will correspond to the reality, because the units of measurement there will be indeterminate (uncertain).
In fact, in regions where gravity differs very much compared to the gravity on our small planet, the relationships between physical magnitudes (the known physical laws) are most likely to be quite different – the places of the so-called “singularity”.
As a logical consequence of the presented “Model of Uncertainty of the Universe”, a “Thesis on the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in the gravitational field” is formulated (in chapter 10 of the book), which actually rejects the “postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for all inertial frames of reference and for entire Universe”