# | PROBLEM 1: The constancy of the speed of light

The content of this web page is excerpted from the published printed book in Bulgaria
The Special Theory of Relativity – a Classical Review”,
which almost corresponds to the e-book “The Special Theory of Relativity – the Biggest
Blunder in Physics of the 20th Century”©, published at Amazon.
This is a part of the published article in the Journal of Modern and Applied Physics “The complete set of proofs for the invalidity of the special theory of relativity

The postulate that the “speed of light is constant for all inertial frames of reference” is the fundamental stone of the Special Theory of Relativity. The revealing of the essence of special relativity, based on this postulate, can be seen on the web page: “Analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”.

As was presented at the 3rd Annual International Conference on Physics, 20-23 July 2015: Athens, Greece (Sharianov, 2016), the problem concerning the problem of changing the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation (frequency, wavelength, and speed of light in vacuum) must be considered in TWO ASPECTS:

1) in the aspect “Global Physical Reality of the Universe” (relating to the regions with different intensity of the gravitational field), and

2) in the “Local Time-Spatial Domains” – in the regions with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field.

`1) The first aspect (in the Global Physical Reality of the Universe)`

concerns the variation of the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation (frequency, wavelength, and speed of light in vacuum) – concerns the claim that the speed of light in vacuum on the Earth’s surface is a limit speed for the entire Universe. The fundamental fact is that the space is actually the medium of propagation of electromagnetic radiation (this is actually the so much-searched “ether”).

The gravitational forces set any body with mass in motion (see Newton’s law of universal gravitation). Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that in the Universe, any particle or body with a mass m1 attracts any other particle or body (with a mass m2) with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses (m1 and  m2), and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers (r), where G is the gravitational constant:

From this law, it becomes clear, that the space is stationary – in other words, that the “vacuum is stationary”. This is undeniable, because the vacuum has no mass, and the gravitational forces do not attract it (the space does not rotate with Earth, but only material bodies and molecules in the atmosphere).

The gravitational forces only contract the space around itself and make it energetically denser. In other words, the spreading medium becomes denser in regions of stronger gravity. The effect of the higher density of the propagation medium is that the frequency, wavelength, and speed of any electromagnetic radiation in vacuum (c=λ.ν) decrease (it is harder for any electromagnetic radiation to propagate in the denser medium). This was experimentally proven by the American astrophysicist Irwin Shapiro the so-called “Shapiro time delay effect”, reported in 1964 …, and has been confirmed very precisely with the use of controlled transponders on board the ships “Mariner-6” and “Mariner-7” as they orbit the planet Mars.

Conversely, in regions of weaker gravity, the frequency, wavelength, and speed of all electromagnetic radiation in vacuum increase. The experimental evidence that the speed of light in vacuum is higher in regions of lower intensity (strength) of the gravitational field, is proven by the recorded anomalies in the accelerations of the space probes “Pioneer 10”, “Pioneer 11”, “Galileo” ”, “Ulysses”…:

“the expected travel time of the communicational electromagnetic signals (based on the constancy of the speed of electromagnetic radiation) between the spacecraft and the Earth, turns out to be much more than the real travel time. So we register backward attraction (acceleration) of the ship to the Sun.” (Sharlanov, 2011)

The speed of light in vacuum, however, remains a local constant for any local region where the intensity of the gravitational field is the same (and uniform).

Here are presented the analyses:

The experimental evidence is also shown there, which, however, seems to be ignored by modern physics.

Thus, space does not move only the distortion of space moves with the celestial body. Thus, the constant intensity of the gravitational field on the surface of the celestial body (dominated by the mass of the celestial body), determines the constant speed in VACUUM of any electromagnetic radiation on its surface.

Therefore, the speed of light on the surface of the Earth remains the same
during the movement of the planet around the Sun and
during the movement of the solar system in the galaxy!

`2) The second aspect concerns "Local Physical Reality" (the speed of light in regions with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field) – as the local time-spatial domain “near the Earth's surface”).`

In regions with the same (uniform) intensity of the gravitational field, the speed of light in vacuum is а local constant, and this concerns the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.

As was endorsed above, an important consequence of Newton’s law of universal gravitation is that the empty of matter space (the medium of propagation of electromagnetic radiation) is stationary! That is why, the measured velocity of light is different in relation to the moving frames of reference in the stationary space.

All experiments in our local time-spatial domain prove that the measured velocity of light is not the same for all inertial frames of reference (excluding the experiments using Michelson’s type interferometer) (Michelson & Morley, 1887), which uses perfectly the same paths in two-ways opposite directions for each light beam (see the link below for the factual analysis of the “Michelson-Morley experiment”).

The experiments “One-way measurement of the speed of light”, which use the latest technological advances today indisputably prove that the measured speed of light is not the same in the directions “East-to-West” and “West-to-East” in the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface!

The fact, that the measured speed of light is not the same for all inertial frames of reference was proven as early as 1913 by the French scientist Georges Sagnac (Sagnac experiment). Michelson himself proved “The Effect of the Earth’s Rotation on the Velocity of Light” through the Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment (Michelson & Gale, 1925), which proves the effect of the Earth’s rotation on the speed of light.

The experiments “One-way determination of the speed of light” and “Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment” prove:

1) the dependence of the speed of light on the direction of the light beam, and

2) the dependence of the velocity of light on latitude (because of the different linear speeds of the Earth’s surface at different latitudes).

The factual analyses of the aforementioned experiments are given on the subpages of the site https://physics.bg/ :

The analyses were made using only classical mechanics and Galilean relativity, which are indisputably proven by real physics (see links).

In the subpage “Analysis of the famous blunder “Michelson-Morley experiment” the reason why the famous experiment “Michelson-Morley” could not fix the existing difference in the speed of light in the frame of reference `related to` the moving surface of the Earth in the stationary space.

p.s.: If you do not have time (you are pressed by time) to read carefully in detail the entire contents of the analyses of experiments related to the problem of the constancy of the speed of light (presented in the sub-pages above), it better do not start reading them – postpone it!

Revealing the essence of the special theory of relativity is shown on the page “Analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies.

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