# | PROBLEM 1: The constancy of the speed of light

The content of this web page is excerpts of the published printed book in Bulgaria
The Special Theory of Relativity – a Classical Review,
that almost corresponds to the e-book “The Special Theory of Relativity – the Biggest
Blunder in Physics of the 20th Century”©, published at Smashwords and at Amazon.

The postulate that the “speed of light is constant for all inertial frames of reference” is the fundamental stone of the Special Theory of Relativity. Revealing the essence of the special theory of relativity is shown on the page “Analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” .

In order to reveal the behavior of electromagnetic radiation, we have to  aware of the following important statements:

#### Firstly:

Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that in the Universe, any particle or body with a mass m1 attracts any other particle or body (with a mass m2) with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses (m1 and  m2), and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers (r), where G is the gravitational constant:

We have to aware, that Newton’s law of universal gravitation has another important meaning:

• It becomes clear from this law that the space is stationary – that means “the vacuum is stationary”. This is undeniable, because the vacuum has no mass, and the gravitational forces do not attract it (the space does not rotate with Earth, but only material bodies and molecules in the atmosphere).

#### Secondly,

The behavior of the electromagnetic radiation in vacuum must be considered in two aspects:

• in regions with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field;
• in regions with different intensity of the gravitational field.

#### 1. The speed of light in regions with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field

In regions with a uniform intensity of the gravitational field, the speed of light in vacuum (in relation to the stationary space) is а local constant, and this concerns the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.

However, the speed of light is different in relation to the moving frames of reference in the stationary space. This reality is confirmed by:

, which are analyzed below according to the classical mechanics and the Galilean relativity (see the links).

The reason, why the famous “Michelson-Morley” experiment cannot fix the existed difference in the velocity of light in the frame of reference related to the moving Earth’s surface in the stationary space, is also analyzed. The analysis shows (see the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment) that the inappropriate conceptual design of the construction of the interferometer, is actually the primary root cause for the great delusion that “the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames of reference”, which is the core of the special theory of relativity (see the link).

#### 2. The speed of light in regions with different intensity of the gravitational field

The speed of light in vacuum depends on the intensity of the gravitational field. In areas with a different intensity of the gravitational field, the speed of light in vacuum (in relation to the stationary space) is different:

• the speed of light in vacuum is higher in regions with lower gravitation, that was proven by the registered anomalies in the accelerations of the space-probes “Pioneer 10”, “Pioneer 11”, “Galileo”, “Ulysses”…

“The expected travel time of the communicational electromagnetic signals (based on the constancy of the speed of electromagnetic radiation) between the spacecraft and the Earth, turns out to be much more than the real travel time. So we register backward attraction (acceleration) of the ship to the Sun.” (Sharlanov, 2011).

• the speed of light in vacuum is lower in regions with stronger gravitation.
This reality is confirmed by the American astrophysicist Dr. Irwin Shapiro (Shapiro time delay effect), reported in 1964; and confirmed highly accurately using controlled transponders aboard the “Mariner-6” and “Mariner-7” spacecrafts as they orbited the planet Mars (see the analysis in details here).

However, the speed of light in vacuum does not change when the Earth travels in its orbit around the Sun and along with the Solar System in the Galaxy, because the intensity of the gravitational field on the Earth’s surface remains the same – dominated by the mass of the Earth. The speed of light in the empty space (in vacuum), depends only on the intensity of the gravitational field (see the analysis in details here). This is the reason that all the experiments examining the speed of light cannot register the change of the speed of light in vacuum (because there is no such change in a region of a ​​uniform intensity of the gravitational field, as on the Earth’s surface). About the dependence of the speed of light in a vacuum on the gravitational potential, Einstein has published in the article “On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light”. However, the experiments register different velocity of the speed of light in relation to the moving frames of reference in the stationary space, but the exception is only the Michelson-Morley experiment

That is why, the “Michelson-Morley experiment” is actually the primary root cause for the great delusion that “the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames of reference”, which is the core of the special theory of relativity (see the page revealing the essence of the special theory of relativity and the Analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”.

The sub-pages are: