As an example of a region with weaker gravitation – this is the region “near the surface of Mars”, where the force of gravitation is about 9 times weaker than that in the region “near the surface of the Earth”.
As already mentioned, in different regions of the Universe, the level of contraction/expansion of the space-time is different, depending on the strength of the gravitational field. Thus, the characteristics of the electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic properties of the atoms are changing with the change of the gravitational field intensity. In regions with a weaker gravitational field, the electromagnetic waves will no longer be so suppressed by gravitation – they will oscillate more freely (easier). It means that they will oscillate with a higher frequency v – the “time period” of the electromagnetic oscillations will be of shorter duration. It means that and the “spatial period” (the wavelength λ) of the electromagnetic oscillations will be greater (they will “jump” with larger wavelength). This logic also coincides with the idea of the general theory of relativity (as well as with the following three consequences):
The first consequence is that in regions with a weak gravitational field, the time there goes/ passes faster. It means that the so defined “second” (the base unit of time in the International System of Units), will be shorter, because the duration of exactly the same number of “time periods” Ns_s of the same “standard electromagnetic radiation”, we have chosen – will be shorter (its frequency has become higher). In other words – the “second” will be with the duration of the same number of oscillations, but the oscillations have become faster. For the shorter “second”, each particular electromagnetic radiation of the electromagnetic spectrum will have the same respective number of periods Ns_i respectively, because the effect of the gravitation is on the entire electromagnetic spectrum (their oscillation frequencies will be respectively higher).
Again, we will mention that the increase of the frequency can be detected only if the used unit of time was defined in a region with different (stronger) gravitation. Otherwise (if we use the unit of time, defined in the same region) – there is no way to obtain different number as a result of measurement of the frequency. This is because of the “circular reference” as was mentioned above. It means that if we use the new changed unit of time (defined as a duration of the same number of oscillations Ns_s of the increased frequency), then the result obtained from the measurement of the frequency of the same electromagnetic radiation will have the same real number. Moreover, this is true again for any frequency of the whole electromagnetic spectrum! In other words, we cannot determine any change of the frequency, using the base unit of time defined in the same region with weaker gravity, which will be synchronously altered.
The second consequence is that in regions with a weaker gravitational field, the defined in the same way base unit of length “meter” will become longer – as a sum of the lengths of exactly the same number Nm_s, but of enlarged/lengthened, (rescued by the gravitation) wavelengths of the same “standard electromagnetic radiation” we have chosen.
Again, it should be noted that the increase of the wavelength of any electromagnetic radiation in the region with weaker gravitation, could be detected only if we use the unit of length, which is defined in a region with different (stronger) gravitation.
The third consequence is again more than obvious. It is that in regions with a weaker gravitational field, the actual speed of light in vacuum (the speed of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum) will be higher, because the frequencies ν and wavelengths λ are increased (c = λν). The new higher speed will be valid again for the whole electromagnetic spectrum – it will be again a local physical constant.
This means that the light from the stars travels to us with greater speed than the speed of light in vacuum for the time-spatial domain “near the surface of the Earth”, and at measuring the time on the surface of the Earth ‒ actually:
The remoteness of the stars from us in the time is smaller – the stars are closer than we imagined …
Here we have to emphasize again that, if we measure the speed of light in vacuum, using the base measurement units of time and length defined in the same region and in the same way (as the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom), we will obtain again exactly the same numerical value for the speed of light in vacuum. This is because we are using the changed units of measurement – the “shorter second” (by fixing the duration of the same number Ns_s “time periods (1/v)”), and the “elongated metre” (by fixing the length of the same number Nm_s “spatial periods (λ)”.
As a result, there is no way to fail to obtain again exactly the same numerical value for the actually higher speed of light in vacuum (c=Ns_s/Nm_s=299,792,458) …, and that is again an example of a “circular reference”!
What could be the proof that the speed of photons in vacuum (the speed of any electromagnetic radiation) increases in regions with weak gravitation? We can use controlled transponders, aboard space probes, reached the border of the Solar System (a region with a weak gravitational field). If we calculate the travel time of the communicational electromagnetic signals (based on the delusion about fundamental constancy of the speed of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum in any region with whatever intensity of gravitational field), we will register that the communicational electromagnetic signals will come back sooner (earlier) than the so calculated expected travel time. This is because the electromagnetic signals have travelled in regions with weaker gravity, where their speed is higher than that wrongly accepted by us “constant speed of light in a vacuum for the whole Universe“. In this way, we will erroneously register deceleration of the space probe… and someone can wrongly conclude that it is caused by a backward attraction to the Sun… By the way, we know about “inexplicable” anomalies in the accelerations of the space-probes “Pioneer 10”, “Pioneer 11”, “Galileo”, “Ulysses”, which in fact proves the presented logic.
“the expected travel time of the communicational electromagnetic signals (based on the constancy of the speed of electromagnetic radiation) between the spacecraft and the Earth, turns out to be much more than the real travel time. So we register backward attraction (acceleration) of the ship to the Sun.” (Sharlanov, 2011).
Here we have to emphasize, that we are talking about the speed of propagation of the electromagnetic field vibrations – increasing the speed of light in vacuum upon entering the regions of low intensity of the gravitational field does not mean increasing the speed of a material body (such as the space probe)! THE DISCOVERY of such dependencies is a subject of future research in physics!
As a logical consequence of the presented “Model of Uncertainty of the Universe”, “Theses on the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in the gravitational field” is formulated (in the chapter 10 of the book), which actually reject the “postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for all inertial frames of reference and everywhere in the Universe”.