| First type tests: Based on a “logical circular reference”

The first type of tests uses the trick “liar paradox”. They interpret the experiments by referring to the false results of the special theory of relativity, which is, in fact, a “logical circular reference” (see mark 5 above). However, we all know that the “circular reference” is inadmissible – both in mathematics (e.g. in spreadsheets) and in logic.

According to Robertson (Robertson, 1949), the following three experiments are the fundamental tests of the special theory of relativity. The first two of the experiments refer to the first type of tests:

Michelson-Morley experiment.

In this page, we have seen the reason for the inability of the Michelson interferometer to ascertain the “speed of light anisotropy” in the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface. As a result, based on the experiment of Michelson-Morley, the claim “the speed of light is the same in all inertial frames of reference” was imposed. From the analysis of the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” in (see here), as well as the declarations of Einstein himself, the special theory of relativity was created on the basis of this erroneous claim. In other words, it turns out that the results of the special relativity are a consequence of inappropriate conceptual design, embedded in the Michelson interferometer, the advanced version of which is used in the famous Michelson-Morley experiment.

But, however, there is no problem to overturn the causal relationship! For the modern physics, the Michelson-Morley experiment is a fundamental experiment, which proves the results of the special theory of relativity. Even more, the experiment establishes a relationship between the longitudinal and transverse lengths of the moving bodies! This is nothing else than a classic example of “logical circular reference”, of a classical use of the trick “liar paradox” – that, “the truth-value of a statement cannot be evaluated by reference to (based on) the truth-value of the statement itself” (see mark 5 above). The genuine scientific analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment, according to the physical reality, was given in chapter 7, (the conclusions – in subsection 7.4).

Kennedy–Thorndike experiment.

As it was grounded in subsection 8.2, the speed of light in a vacuum, does not change when the Earth travels in its orbit around the Sun and along with the Solar System in the Galaxy. It is so, because, during the motion of the Earth, the intensity of the gravitational field on its surface remains the same – dominant by the mass of the Earth.

The “speed of light anisotropy” in the frame of reference related to the Earth’s surface, however, is a fact that cannot be fixed by the Michelson’s type interferometers. Kennedy-Thorndike experiment does not principally differ from the Michelson-Morley experiment. The interferometer is actually a modified Michelson interferometer. The modification is that one arm of the interferometer used in the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment is shorter than the other one.

As it was grounded (see the analisis):

the interference fringes will never be displaced, because the difference in the speeds of each light beam in both directions of each of the arms will be fully compensated – regardless of the length of the arm, regardless of the direction of the arm!

So, the result of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment cannot be different: no phase displacements are detected as a result of the rotation of the Earth around its axis, that was ascertained in the experiments “One-way measurement of the speed of light” and “Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment”.

According to the modern physics, however, the negative result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is explained by length contraction (which is the result of the special theory of relativity). In the same way – the negative result of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment is explained by time dilation (the other result of the special theory of relativity) … in addition to the length contraction…. From the report of the experiment:

“Using this null result and that of the Michelson-Morley experiment we derive the Lorentz-Einstein transformations, which are tantamount to the relativity principle.” (Kennedy & Thorndike, 1932).

We see that none of the two experiments can be any proof of the special theory of relativity, because “the truth-value of a statement cannot be evaluated if the statement refers to the truth-value of itself”.

So, the main question that needs to be put on the reliability of any experiment with a claim to prove the validity of a theory is:

“Whether the evaluation of results of the experiment refers to the results of this theory?”

It turns out that most of the tests on the validity of the special theory of relativity use the trick “logical circular reference”. Therefore, these “tests” cannot serve as a proof of the truth of any theory (in this case the special theory of relativity).

Concerning the Sagnac experiment (see chapter 5) – the use of a “logical circular reference” relates not only to the reference (Malykin, 2000). Is it not irresponsible for a scholar to write on Internet – (for example in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tests_of_special_relativity) that:

“Special relativity also predicts that two light rays traveling in opposite directions around a spinning closed path (e.g. a loop) require different flight times to come back to the moving emitter/receiver (this is a consequence of the independence of the speed of light from the velocity of the source, see above). This effect was actually observed and is called the Sagnac effect.”

This is absurd, even humiliating for modern physics, that the Sagnac effect, which proves the invalidity of the special theory of relativity, is presented as a proof of its validity!!! It is interesting in this aspect, the monograph “Relativity in Rotating Frames: Relativistic Physics in Rotating Reference Frames” (Rizzi & Ruggiero, 2004) to be read, too.

Concerning the experiment “Michelson-Gale-Pearson” – the detailed analysis and conclusion were given in chapter 6.

Concerning the experiments “one-way measurement of the speed of light”the “logical circular reference” is realized by the modern physics – claiming that the “one-way” speed of light from a source to a detector, cannot be measured independently of a convention as to how to synchronize the clocks at the source and the detector. Here, it is understood that if a suitable convention is chosen to synchronize the clock of the source and the detector’s clock (what, of course, will not correspond to the physical reality), it can be “mathematically proven” that the speed of the light in the direction “east-west” and in the direction “west-east” is the same.

But let us go back to the “fundamental tests” of the special theory of relativity. Apart from the “logical circular reference”, that can prove whatever theory (because it is based on a reference to the theory itself), there are other ways of “proving” false theories:

2, Second type tests: Based on inadmissible analogy

3. Third type tests: Completely contrived (fabricated) tests